The design of a jaw crusher can vary significantly depending on the size, the equipment used to load the starting material and the system for discharging the output product. The size of a mill is usually characterized by the ratio "length to diameter" and this ratio most frequently varies from 0.5 to 3.5. The starting material can be loaded either through a spout feeder or by means of a single or double helical scoop feeder. Several types of jaw crusher are distinguished depending on the discharge system and these types are commonly known as overflow discharge mill, diaphragm or grate discharge mill and centre-periphery discharge mill. In industrial applications, the inner surface of the mill is lined with mill liners protecting the steel body of the mill and incorporating mill lifters which help to raise the content of the mill to greater heights before it drops and cascades.
In the mining and mineral processing field, comminution refers to the size reduction of runof-mine ore, such as that accomplished in the crushing and grinding process, until the finely-disseminated minerals of interest are liberated from the gangue before concentration. Up until now, tumbling grinding mills, such as autogenous/semi-autogenous grinding mills and jaw crusher, have had a dominant bearing on the design and economics of comminution circuits. However, it is commonly agreed that the majority of employed comminution processes are both energy-intensive and energy-inefficient, are responsible for up to 80% of overall process plant energy consumption and have an efficiency of as low as 1%.
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